Skip to main content
find a provider
neurofeedback Research


Research Papers

Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback in Depression: Three Case Studies [abs.]
by Vera A. Grin-Yatsenko, Siegfried Othmer, Valery A. Ponomarev,Sergey A. Evdokimov, Yuri Y. Konoplev, andJuri D. Kropotov

Electroencephalographic (EEG) findings on depressive patients indicate theta and alphaactivity higher than in normal controls. Extensive literature reports on the effectiveness of neurofeedback techniques in the treatment of cognitive and behavioral disorders by training the patients to modulate their brain activities, as reflected in their electroencephalogram. Three unmedicated,depressed individuals participated in this study of infra-low frequency neurofeedback (ILF NF) training. Along with the pre-and posttreatment Depression Rating Scales assessment, quantitative EEGs (qEEG) were recorded in eyes-open and eyes-closed resting states and during the visual cued Go/NoGotask before and after 20 sessions of training. Along with remission of the clinical symptoms of depression, significant decrease of theta power over frontal and central areas was observed in all three patients under all test conditions. These qEEG dynamics might be a correlate of ILF NF-related recovery of the appropriate levelof frontal cortical activation.

Operant (biofeedback) Control of Left-Right Frontal Alpha Power Differences: Potential Neurotherapy for Affective Disorders [abs.]
by Rosenfeld JP, Cha G, Blair T, Gotlib IH

Two experiments were done with subjects from a paid pool of undergraduates. In each study, there were five 1-hour sessions on each of 5 days: (1) Baseline: Rewards given for randomly selected 20% of the 700-ms sequential epochs; mean and SD of baseline power differences determined. 2) Exploration: Subjects were rewarded when right minus left alpha differences in an epoch were greater than the baseline mean plus about .85 SD (p = .20); subjects told to discover how to generate rewards. (3)-(5).

Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression with the Roshi
by Hammond CD, Ph.D.

A patient with severe, medication resistant depression was found to have the frontal alpha asymmetry described in Davidson's (1998a) research as demonstrating a predisposition to depression. Initial sessions of EEG neurofeedback using Rosenfeld's (1997) protocol for correcting the alpha asymmetry were discouraging, actually producing slight negative change. Therefore, treatment shifted to using the Roshi, a two channel unit combining neurofeedback and photic stimulation, doing primarily left hemisphere beta training.

Neurofeedback in Major Depression Associated to Addictions - A Case Study
by Ibric VL, M.D., PhD.

Depression has been treated for some time with Neurofeedback (NF) and different authors presented different modalities in terms of the electrodes localization, or enhanced or inhibited frequencies (see Othmers, Peniston, Rosenfeld,). The case I am presenting, is a 43 years old Caucasian female with familiar major depression and addictions. The causality of her major depression may also be routed in her early childhood experiences (she lost her father, when she was 12), or may be an expression of a complex PTSD developed later in life (when, her already detached and chronically depressed mother has been diagnosed with Alzheimer's). She started to use drugs and alcohol as self medication.

Preliminary Evidence That Daily Changes in Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Correlate with Changes in Affect in Therapy Sessions [abs.]
by Rosenfeld JP, Baehr E, Baehr R, Gotlib IH, Ranganath C

Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry was recorded from five depressed outpatients during early EEG biofeedback sessions. Mood was assessed prior to and after each session, and affect change scores were also derived by subtracting pre-session from post-session scores. Alpha magnitude was obtained via Fast Fourier Transforms. All scores (EEG alpha asymmetry and affect) were converted to deviation scores by subtracting each patient's daily score from that patient's mean across all available sessions for that patient.

Alpha-Theta Brainwave Neurofeedback Training: An Effective Treatment for Male and Female Alcoholics with Depressive Symptoms [abs.]
by Saxby E and Peniston EG

This was an experimental study of 14 alcoholic outpatients using the Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1991) brainwave treatment protocol for alcohol abuse. After temperature biofeedback pretraining, experimental subjects completed 20 40-minute sessions of alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training (BWNT). Experimentally treated alcoholics with depressive syndrome showed sharp reductions in self-assessed depression (Beck's Depression Inventory).

Self-regulation of Slow Cortical Potentials in Psychiatric Patients: Schizophrenia [abs.]
by Schneider F, Rockstroh B, Heimann H, Lutzenberger W, Mattes R, Elbert T, Birbaumer N, Bartels M

Slow cortical potentials (SCPs) are considered to reflect the regulation of attention resources and cortical excitability in cortical neuronal networks. Impaired attentional functioning, as found in patients with schizophrenic disorders, may covary with impaired SCP regulation. This hypothesis was tested using a self-regulation paradigm. Twelve medicated male schizophrenic inpatients and 12 healthy male controls received continuous feedback of their SCPs, during intervals of 8 s each, by means of a visual stimulus (a stylized rocket) moving horizontally across a TV screen.

Clinical Use of an Alpha Asymmetry Neurofeedback Protocol in the Treatment of Mood Disorders: Follow-Up Study One to Five Years Post-Therapy
by Baehr E Ph.D., Rosenfeld JP Ph.D., Baehr R Ph.D.

This study reports on three of six patients who have completed an average of 27 neurofeedback sessions using a patented alpha asymmetry protocol for the treatment of depression. The follow-up data, from one to five years post therapy, were derived from a single session re-test using the same alpha asymmetry protocol and the Beck Depression Inventory.

Frontal Interhemispheric Asymmetry: Self Regulation and Individual Differences in Humans [abs.]
by Hardman E, Gruzelier J, Cheesman K, Jones C, Liddiard D, Schleichert H, Birbaumer N

Sixteen subjects naive to biofeedback learned lateralised interhemispheric control of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) across electrode sites F3-F4 during three sessions of visual electroencephalograph (EEG) biofeedback. Subjects were required to generate slow negativity shifts either towards the left or the right hemisphere in sixty pseudorandomly ordered trials per session. Group 1 (n = 8) were told to use emotional strategies in the task (positive emotions for left hemisphere activation, negative emotion for right hemisphere activation), group 2 received no guidance.

Treatment of a Depressive Disorder Patient with EEG-driven Photic Stimulation [abs.]
by Kumano H, Horie H, Shidara T, Kuboki T, Suematsu H, Yasushi M

This study examined the effects of electroencephalographic- (EEG-) driven photic stimulation on a case of depressive disorder, as measured by a psychometric test of mood states, EEG parameters, and several autonomic indices. The EEG-driven photic stimulation enhances the alpha rhythm of brain waves using photic signals, the brightness of which is modulated by a subject's own alpha rhythm. The patient was a 37-year-old businessman, who was treated for depression with medication during the 13 months prior to his first visit to our hospital.

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72